Yellow variety of the quartz mineral species.
Colours: Pale yellow through to deep yellowish brown. Most commercially available citrine is heat-treated amethyst. Although this treatment does affect the colour, it is not adding anything artificial to the stone and mimics what can occur in nature so it is an accepted treatment among gemmologists.
Geological occurrences: Brazil, Uruguay, Madagascar.
Crystallography: Forms as six sided, singly-terminated crystals, typically in clusters or druzes in cavities and geodes. Prismatic crystals show striations down the length of the prism face.
Citrine/Amethyst geodes are magnificent underground cavities lined with crystals pointing inward. Deep in the earth’s crust, these pockets are formed by volcanic action over hundreds of thousands of years. Mineral-rich solutions containing a high saturation of silica fill the voids and through years of slow cooling the crystallisation process begins. In the initial quick-cooling stages fine layers of microcrystalline crystals are deposited in the form of agate, chalcedony or jasper. As the cooling process slows down, the crystals increase in size with the final layer being that of large amethyst points.
Uniquely, citrine and amethyst (purple variety of quartz) both form through this process, whilst the other quartz varieties are produced in different geological environments. Occasionally a single crystal may present both purple and yellow colour zoning, these are called ametrine and can show both dynamic separation of the two colours or a more subtle mixing within the gemstone.
Internal observations: Citrine often shows straight banding and colour zoning with colour becoming more intense towards the termination. Typical inclusions are radiating golden cacoxenite needles, golden-red goethite needles, patches and zones of smoky quartz, amethyst (ametrine) or colourless quartz, healed fractures showing feathered or zebra striped patterning in heat treated stones.
Crystal care: Citrine fades in direct sunlight, so keep off windowsills or any area that has sun shining too brightly.
MOH's Hardness 7
Whilst citrine isn't a 'soft' stone it is still prone to scratching and surface dulling over time if not handled with care. Cluster formations are more delicate than single crystals.
General crystal care here
Abundance, Happiness, Manifesting
Citrine, known as the stone of abundance, carries the power of the sun which in turn powers your solar plexus chakra; the energy centre linked to creativity and motivation. This sunny stone absorbs, dissipates and grounds negative energy therefore is good for the environment. Citrine encourages sharing, is a generous crystal and imparts joy. Gloom and doom have no place around Citrine. It raises self esteem and self confidence allowing happiness to flourish.
Uses: Carry citrine on you to manifest abundance of wealth, joy and motivation.
Keep creative ideas and motivation flowing brightly and abundantly by placing citrine in your sacred space.